UNIT ONE – GOVERNMENT POLICIES
Assignment 2 – Policy impact and developments
A policy is used to describe any root of action which mostly changes due to the situation. The
government uses policies to tackle many different issues. Some of the government policies that are
created can impact our public services in a wide range of ways.
FINANCIAL REDUCTION OR INCREASE
The financial reduction or increase policy was set up to manage all the income and outcome within
the public services and will monitor how much is spent or not. This government policy will determine
how much money the public services actually are allowed to be given. In the public services the
heart of work is finance. In the every single service they rely on the finance to pay for their
equipment they use, pay for the personnel that are working within the public services and more.
In the UK government the different levels within the government actually decide how much money
is actually given out to the different public services. In Leicestershire, the police force has a budget
of £170.840m in 2016. The majority of the financial income to the public services is raised though
taxation. The head of the police force will spilt the money and give the needed amount for the
different departments. These departments will use this money in several different ways such as
paying for more advanced equipment to benefit the service and maintaining the current
equipment/technology they have, also paying the personnel who are actually working for the police
force and more.
Every police officers will receive an average salary of £33,000 each year. This
becomes a lot of money when the department has to pay each and every single officer.
This financial reduction and increase policy has impacted the public service tremendously in many
ways. The police force relies on the large amount of money they are given to them so it allows them
to maintain and buy new technology to make the police force more effectively. A positive impact on
the police force would be if they got given even more money than they do currently. This would
allow the police departments to spend more money on equipment and resources to become even
more effective and decrease crime. When the financial income is decreased in the police then there
starts to become a lot of problems. The police are impacted when this happens as they won’t have
the large amounts of money they use to get. This will cause less equipment being repaired as it is too
expensive, police stations could be closed down as they don’t have to money to actually run
everything which causes people to lose their jobs or roles. This policy falls under the financial
constraints in the broad agenda. The positive side of financial increase for the police force is it allows
the department to buy or repair their equipment to become/maintain their effectiveness. A negative
impact of when the financial reduction is in place, impacts their forces as they need high amounts of
income for them to maintain their equipment. Overall this policy has positive and negative sides.
The policy of financial reduction and increase within the police force has impacted the police, society
and some communities. This policy has affected the society because the main income for the police
is the public tax. This will affect the public when the government choose to increase the finance of
the police force. This will cause demonstrations as people will want the tax to come back down as it
might be too much money for them. Communities might have to pay even more money. When the
public disagree with the government policies, the public opinion can be very powerful and influence
the government to change the policy. The public could take the policy is a bad way and start
demonstrations or sit ins. They do this is get their point across. This policy can impact the police
force in many different ways. When finical reduction is put into place the police force won’t be
getting as much income as they normally do causing their equipment not to be getting maintained
properly as it is too much money. A positive impact about this policy for the police force is when it
gets increased the police service will receive more money than they normally do. This will allow
them to buy and maintain their equipment. This is allowing the police to maintain their
effectiveness. A negative side of when it gets reduced is the police will have to be more careful with
their money as the equipment is expensive the run and repair. Overall this policy can have
advantages and disadvantages to everyone.
The policy has a wide impact on most public services. the public services do not get unlimited
amounts of money given to them. All the services have to budget their money and spend it on
resources that will be effective to their jobs. Most services get their funds from the public taxes. If
the services get more money they will have an advantages as they will be able to get a wider range
of things but if taxes go down, the public services will all suffer and won’t be able to get as much as
With this policy, it doesn’t just affect the police force, but with all of the services. As I’ve said before
the services rely on the amount of money they get given for them as it allows them to get new or
repair equipment they have. They can also buy new clothing or more for their personnel. This policy
can impact both the public services and the communities. This is because If there is always financial
reduction and increase it can mess the public services about. The reason for why it can impact the
public services is because if there is a reduction in the financial area it can affect the services as their
equipment which requires high maintenance and upgrading, it can cost them a lot of money to
maintain them. If the public services get a reduction in their money, they might not be able to
maintain the equipment they normally use. But they can also be affect in a positive way. If the public
services get an increase, they will be able to buy more and effective equipment along with being
able to maintain their equipment they currently have. The communities can also get affect by this
policy. As most of the public services funds come from taxes, the public will have to pay more in tax
if the services get an increase which is a big impact for the civilians. As the services, the community
can also be affected in a positive way. If there is a reduction in income, they will have to pay less
money. With this policy it can affect communities long term and short term because in long time,
the communities would have to pay a lot of money if there is an increase.
FIRE AND RESCUE CLOSURES
The fire and rescue station closure is one of the government policies that have been set up to save
more money. In this policy, the government have decided to close some of the fire stations in some
towns and cities. They wanted to put together smaller fire forces and put them into one big single
force. This did this as the numbers of fires were decreasing and the fire officers need to focus on
This policy that was created by the government and has impacted the fire services extremely. It has
impacted the fire forces as stations are being closed down which is making fire fighters unemployed
or lose their roles within the force. The increase of technology has decreased the rate of house fires.
This is because smoke alarms are more sensitive and can alert householders that there smoke/fire.
As there has been a decrease in fires, the firer service isn’t used that often. As this policy is closing
fire stations, the department will save a huge amount of money. This policy falls under the broad
agenda of increase of technology. This is because machines are getting better upgrades to detect
fires, and are decreasing the amount of fires in homes etc.
This policy, that has caused fire and rescue station to close down. This has impacted the society and
some communities. This policy has impacted the public as people won’t have a close fire station
nearby them like they did before. People will have to wait even longer for the fire service to get to
their location of an incident or fire. This means that more people are at risk because there isn’t a fire
station close to them that would be on the screen in seconds like normal. Another impact that this
policy will have on the public is the individuals that were working within them, fire station that have
now closed down will have to either be re-located to another fire station that might be even further
from where they live or they might become unemployed. This will cause people to become jobless.
This will anger civilians and some will start demonstrations about this certain policy as people
disagree massively bout shutting down their local fire stations. Overall this has impacted people in
many ways and a lot of civilians disagree with the policy that was put into place.
When this policy was applied the pubic have their, own opinions. The public opinion is very powerful
when wanting to put a point across. In this certain situation the public were not happy at all about
the government closing down fire stations. This caused a lot of public speeches and meetings to get
their opinion across to the government. The reason why the public are not happy that fire stations
are closing, are because the public felt safer and more protected when they had local fire station
near their homes or shops. The impact of closing down fire station will leave some fire fighters
without a job and become unemployed. Another impact this will have is, if there’s a fire happening
nearby where one fire station closed they will have to wait longer for the fire service to arrive as
they are further away. In London when 10 fire stations were closing down, there were protests
outside one of the oldest stations to show their thoughts and feelings. The media also had negative
and positive views about the policy that the government has set in place. The positive impacts that
this policy will have on the government is they will save more money. Government policies can be
influenced by different groups in society. A key thing it can be influenced by is public opinion. This is
very powerful when it comes to changing or adding new policies. This is because the public will do
demonstrations to show the government or local authority the depth how much they disagree with
the decision. Overall the public opinion can influence the government to either change or make
policies, this is because the public will come together doing demonstrations or sit ins to get their
As this policy is mainly aimed at the fire services, not every single service will be affected. Even
though this policy is affecting the fire service most, in some situations other services can be affected.
If there is a car accident requiring the fire service, the police and ambulance services will have to
wait longer as close fire stations have closed down. This can affect other services because the
incident might require the fire service instantly.
Overall there can be many different impacts on both services and communities. The impact on
services is that there are less fire stations in areas. This can impact the services because the
reduction of fire stations/services will make other services need to wait longer until another fire
service gets on screen. This can make the public services look bad as they are reducing fire station
which might make the public feel unsafe as they won’t have a local fire station to get to them
instantly. This policy has impacted the fire service in both positive and negative ways. This will save
the fire department more money as they won’t need to run as many stations. In a negative way, the
fire service personnel will lose their jobs or re located. This might impact the service as well as they
won’t have as many fire trucks on the road. With this policy it might not impact the communities as
it is mainly for the sire services. The communities could be impacted as they will only have to wait
longer for a fire truck to respond to their situation. I don’t think this policy has many impacts on the
communities only the fire service.
Public services course book
When the government are wanting to develop a policy, they have to go through a number of
different stages to generate. Policies are made because of a number of reason, such as if there is a
need for something that the public or even an organisation have identified. Another reason could be
because of the reaction to an issue in the media that influenced the government to either change or
make a policy. The policies are here to initially on the best way to either change or handle any
situation that may occur.
A bill can either start in the House of Commons or Lords. Whichever house it is they both need to be
approved in the same form before actually coming an act of parliament.
The ideas for the new policies can come from the public, as they will share their opinion on what
needs to change. This can come from petitions online, where the public vote for what they want to
happen. Another way would be public bills.
– 2 HOUSE SYSTEM
The two-house system involves the House of Commons and the House of Lords. They do similar
things such as making new laws or checking information from the government. The two houses both
work together. They both have their responsibilities, as the commons are responsible with dealing
with money and more. When a bill is being created, the two houses will sometimes work together
when making changes to the bill.
– GREEN PAPER
The meaning of a green paper is a document about the changes to the law. It is extremely important
to talk about the issues about the law. These discussions can happen in a form of public meetings or
specialist consultation meeting. It is important that these happen because it shows the law requires
changes to become more effective.
– WHITE PAPER
The white paper is the next stage after green paper. This is a more formal paper than the green
paper. The white paper contains a formal proposal for the new law or policy. This stage is as
important as others.
– FIRST READINGS
The very first stage of a bill is called the first reading. Within this stage, the title of the bill is read out
to everyone that is in the chamber. After the title of the bill is read out, it then available to every
single member that is in the parliament. This then goes into the second stage. This is the first stage
of the bill, this is the most important part as it chose if the bill carries on or not.
– SECOND READING.
After the bill is passed along from the first reading, it becomes the second reading. Now the MPs and
peers know what the bill is about, they start to have a discussion about all the key features and
principles of the bill. After the discussion of the bill has ended, there is a vote at the end. They will
vote if they like the idea of the bill or not. In the House of Lords the bill is instantly passed to the
next stage without any votes.
– COMMITTEE STAGES
This stage is called the committees stages. This stage comes after the second reading. Within this
stage, the bill will be read and considered in much detail “line by line” this is done by committees of
MPs or peers. If there is any changes that need to happen in this bill, it will be called amendments.
Changed will be voted and proposed on. Normally with a common bill there will be around 20 MPs.
With this stage, everyone is involved in the House of Lords. I believe that this is also another
important stage as the bill is being looked at very carefully.
– REPORT STAGES
After the committee stage, it is passed to the report stages. In the report stage if the bill has substained
any amendments (changes) will be all reported to the house. Every single member will be
allowed to look and read the amended bill. If individuals were not taking part in the last stage
(committee stage) they will be able to suggest any thoughts or ideas to the bill. Allows everyone to
reads and share their opinion on the bill.
– THIRD READING
Within this stage, this is called the third reading. The MPs that are involved will have a big discussion
and vote on the bill when it has had all of its changes done to it (final form). In this stage in the
House of Lords, further changes will still be allowed. I feel like this is an important stage as everyone
is discussing the bill and if it does need any further changes.
– A BILL APPROVED BY ONE CHAMBER IS CONSIDERED BY THE OTHER
After the third reading the bill is then approved by one of the chamber is considered by the others.
This is the next stage. If the bill was introduced at the start by the House of Commons and is
approved. The bill will then be sent to the House of Lords. The bill will then have to go through all
the stages again. When the Lords are discussing the bill to each other and feel like there are changes
needed, they will send the bill back to the commons for the MPs to talk about the Lords suggested
changes. Before the bill is made into a law, the House of Commons and Lords must come to an
agreement on the final shape of the bill. This is an important stage for the bill because the bill is
being approved along with identifying if it is fair and effective.
– THE MONARCHS ASSENT TURNS INTO A BILL INTO AN ACT
With approval from the lords and the commons a bill will also receive formal approval but the
monarch called royal assent, the monarch always give their approval on the advice of the ministers.
After the House of Lords and Commons come to an agreement of the final shape and give approval,
the bill then receives the formal approval, but the Monarch which is called royal assents. The
Monarch always has to give their approval from the advice of the ministers.
– ROYAL ASSENT
The Royal assent is where there is formal signing to make it an act of parliament from the sovereign
to make to become a law. With the royal assent when it has been given, both House of Lords and
commons are given an announcement. Within the royal assent, there is no set time to make
changes. After legislation is all done, the bill will start instantly. With this, the monarch will not have
to sign the bill.
All the stages to a bill have their own key factors and meanings of why it is a stage. Through the
development process of the bill, it will be looked and discussed many times by different MPs etc. At
the very start of the bill, the title of the bill will be read out to everyone and will be available to
everyone within the chamber. This is important as it is the start of the journey for the bill. Within
this stage the key factors of it, is that the individuals within the chamber will choose if they want it
or not. After the first stage it’ll get past onto the second stage. Within this stage, they start to discuss
the important things within the bill to everyone. When the bill is passed to the other stage, it will be
looked into with more detail “line by line”. This is one of the most important stages because the bill
is being looked at carefully so they can identify any problem with it instantly. When the bill is looked
at in detail, the next stage will be making any changes that the bill might require to become even
better. When change is requested, the reporting stage will tell the house about the changes asked.
This will make the bill more effective as they are overcoming problems with it. After the changes
have been made, it will go to the next stage where the final form of the bill will be read out and
discussed with everyone. This stage is important, as it makes sure that everyone agrees with the bill.
The final form will be sent to the House of Commons where they will see if they approve it or not. If
the House of Commons gives their approval the bill will be sent to the Monarch where it will either
be approved or not. If everything is okay with the bill and everyone agrees with it. The bill is then
become a law. The two house system allows them to work together when creating the bill.
Each stage is relevant to one another. This is because in each stage the bill will need approval from
individuals to be passed on to the next stage. Another reason why the stages are similar to each
other is because in each stage the bill will be read out and discussed with MPs etc. All the stages that
the bill has to go through are all important in their own way. The reasons why the stages are
important are because the bill is looked at carefully to find any mistakes. This is important as the
government want their laws to be effective and reasonable to the civilians. If these stages were not
there, the bill could have serval problems with it and individuals might disagree with what the bill
will impose. The reason for why the bill would have problems if the stages did not exist would be
because throughout the stages the bill is getting changes given to make it better overall. The bill
would not be looked at or anything making it ineffective. The good things about having all these
stages allows everyone to read the bill itself and have a big discussion on what they think is good
about the bill and things that are bad. A negative side about all these stages is it takes a while for a
bill to actually become a law. Overall the stages are there to make the bill become even more
effective as everyone will say their ideas and thoughts about it.