The United Nations has six main areas that are called the divisions.
different areas all specialised in their roles. All the different institutions are
effective when used correctly.
The International Court of Justice
The international Court of Justice is one of the main courts in the United
Nations. This institution was created by the Charter of the UN and was set up
in June 1945. This started to be effective a year after in 1946. The Court of
Justice is located in Hague which is in the Netherlands. The Court of Justice has
two main roles that they specializes in. The first main role is to settle any
international laws that have been broken etc. They also deal with any legal
disputes between countries to prevent them going to war. Their second main
role in the Court of Justice is to authorities UN organs and specialised agencies.
The UN Security Council
The Security Council is extremely important in the United Nations when it
comes to international security. This certain institution was established on the
24th of October 1945. The security council consists of 15 members overall but
they have 5 permanent members that are always there and the other 10 who
have a 2 year term. The 5 permanent members are the United Kingdom,
France, United States, China and Russia. All these 5 countries are the greatest
powers. Each of the 5 permanent members are expected to send troops out
when needed to. When decisions are needed to be made, each member in the
security council will have one vote but depending on how bad the situation is,
it’ll determines on how many votes are allowed. The Security Council has one
main roles and is responsible to maintain international peace and keep security
on high alert for whatever may occur.
The UN General Assembly
The general assembly is where most decision are made such as policymaking
and they are representative organ of the United Nations. As the general
assembly is where decision are made they deal with questions like the
international security etc. This was made in 1945 and has been used since. In
the general assemble they have 193 members. When needed to they will meet
to discuss and sort out things together. Each member who is in this institution
will have one vote on what they think is best. This is based in New York. The
role of the general assembly is to get the best decision for that certain
situation to get a better outcome.
The UN Economic and Social Council
The economic and social council or ECOSOC is one of the six institutions in the
United Nations. This was made in 1946 and is based in France to help with
economic and social problems. There are 54 members that are elected by the
GA for a 3 year term. This council will receive 70% of the financial resources
which they will use on things that are necessary and will help the council out.
They meet whenever something bad occurs in the world to decided on how to
deal with it. The main role is to discuss the international economic and social
issues to view on how they will overcome the problem that has occur
effectively and reach goals that have been set.
The UN Trusteeship Council
The Trusteeship Council is there to help ensure that everyone is comfortable
with each others territories to keep peace. This was established in 1945 so
members of the different states could have assistance for preparing them
independence or self government. This councils HQ is based in New York.
Everyone would meet annually if it was required GA, majority of members or
SC. The Trusteeship Council has many roles but their main role is to maintain
peace in everyone’s territories and help them out to become an self
government or independent.
The UN Secretariat Council
The Secretariat Council is the administrative section in the United Nations. This
was created in 1945 and their HQ is in New York. This was set up to organise
international conferences. This institution has around about 9000 staff working
together to get the job done. This staff are drawn from all the members in the
nations. They also deal with the surveying economic and social trades also they
deal with peace and security as they send out their armies, risking the soldiers
lives to get the problem dealt with. The main role in this institution is to settle
the agenda in the UN’s deliberative and meet to discuss the making bodies
within the united nations, they also drive to succeed their other roles which is
to maintain peace everywhere.
The UK’s involvement in the UN with the public services
The UK’s public services do have to get involved with the United Nations as the
United Kingdom are expected to send troops out etc. This is when they are
required for any situation that may occur. The main aim of the United Nation is
to maintain peace around the world to prevent any likely hood of another
world war. When the public services are needed its mostly for peacekeeping
operations in another country. The military are the service that are mostly
used to help out when a situation needs to be solved quickly. There are many
impacts on the public services and the people who work for them. Our armed
and civilian’s public services are impacted by the United Nations is many
different ways. Some ways in which the public services can be affected by the
United Nations is that they can be utilised. If the military are needed in another
country troops will have to spend time away from their families for long
periods of time such as when troops were needed in Afghanistan, soldiers had
to spend a lot of time away from their homes. The army are expected to be
able to maintain peace which may course some troops to get under pressure.
When any sort of disaster acts occur the Army and RAF will be sent out to help
the civilians out. As they are needed to help rebuild homes and buildings along
with dropping supplies such as water and food. This can impact the public
services as the are losing troops and equipment that could be used at home.
Also troops are effected as they’ll have to be travel soldiers around the world
which is cost money and that public services could avoid.
The United Nations was formed during World War One on the 1st January,
1942. This was created to ensure that peace and security was maintained
around the countries to make sure there’s no war ever again. The United
Nations has 193 members which all help out. The leaders of the 26 nations at
war against the Axis power, they all had a meeting in Washington to sign a
form about the declaration within the United Nations. This was to agree that
they wouldn’t make a separate peace and to fight against the Axis power
together to be more effective. The United Nations started to be effective in
1945 after WW2 ended. The United Nation created the Charter, this was all
signed by over 50 states in June 26, 1945. The United Nations was signed on
the 26th June 1945 but it was officially created on the 24th October 1945. The
United Nations created different institutions for different problems. United
Nations has been around for over three quarter of a century now. The war
made the world realise that they needed to all come together and tackle all the
international issues as one. The headquarters are now mainly based in New
York and Geneva, this is where most meetings will be hosted. Over the years of
the United Nations being used, they have had many missions to maintain
peace which have mostly been very effective.
The European union stated in 1957 as the European economic community
which was made from the treaty of Rome. It was created to stop wars and
improve the cooperation between countries. Due to the treaty of Amsterdam
each member has to agree to give some power from their national government
to the European parliament. Also the treaty of Maastricht was the starting
point of the EU as it started the 10 institutions. When the EU was created there
were 6 members which grew to become 28 members. The UK joined the EU in
1973 but due to brexit the UK are leaving the EU which happened in 2016.
The EU is the biggest providers funds and aid for countries which are still
developing, They also provide the les and give guidance to each member such
as; fishing, agriculture, immigration and the monetary union. There are 10
institutions which are; European investment bank, the council of ministers,
economic and social committee, the European parliament, committee of
regions, European commissions, European ombudsmen, court of justice,
European central bank and court of.
The 4 main institutions are the European parliament, council of ministers,
European commission and the European court of justice. The European
parliament creates the laws for the members of the EU. Members of the
European parliament are elected every 5 years so that it is fair or all the
members. They share their authority and they supervise the European
commissions. The council of ministers are the main body for making the main
decisions. The European commission is control of the interests of the EU. The
European court of justice makes sire that all the EU laws are applied equally
among the all the members.
There are 3 ways to make a decision in EU which are co-decision, consultation
and assent. Assent is when the commission submit the decision then the
European parliament either approve it or reject it, if the approve it then it goes
on to the council which either apply it or reject it. Consultation is when the
commission have a proposal when is passed on to the EU council, The council
either ask the EU parliament for their opinion then make the decision or they
make a decision without the parliaments opinion. Co-decision is when the
European parliament, European council, commission all make the decision
To be able to join the EU you must you must meet the certain conditions called
the Copenhagen criteria. In this criteria you must a free market economy, a
stable democracy and must accept all of the EU rules and regulations.
IMPACT ON PUBLIC SERVICES
Some decisions that have been made in the EU have affect the public services
in several ways. One decision that was made by the European Union was the
free movement of people between countries. This can be an impact to the
public services as this affects the border control as they have to monitor and
make sure that no illegal immigrants try to enter the country without
permission. This causes the individuals who are working in the public services
to work even harder to identify any unwanted people. The free movement of
people can also cause a problem for the public services as this can increase the
risk of terrorism which means that the pubic services have to work even harder
to stop this happening.
NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The NATO is an alliance of
28 members. It was signed on the 4th April 1949 and is a form of 10 European
and 2 north American nations. This was set up for protection and safety.
In NATO there are 28 independent members countries with 12 family
members. Countries that are involved with the NATO are countries such as
United Kingdom who joined in 1949, France also joined at the same time as the
UK, USA joined in 1949, Italy signed up in 1949 and more. All the members
agreed to help defend Europe as they are very vulnerable to being attacked.
The aims for the members was to support each other and strengthen the
The structure of the NATO has three main military institutions which consist of
The North Atlantic Council, Allied Command Operation and The Allied
Command Transformation. There is 28 member states all together
North Atlantic Council
The North Atlantic Council (NAO) is the political decision making body in NATO.
This institution is there to deal with any issues that are affecting security or
peace between members. This was created by the North Atlantic Treaty in
1949. This council is based in Brussels which is located in Belgium. The nuclear
planning group has partnered with the North Atlantic Council. The nuclear
planning group will ask the NAC to deal with any of their issues that may occur
such as nuclear policies or consultation procedures. All the decisions are made
here in the council.
Allied Command Operation
Allied Command Operation (ACO) is a part of the NATO. They are responsible
for each and every single operation duty. The Allied Command Operation is
based at supreme which is located near mons in Belgium. This was created
in April 2nd
, 1951 but was officially activated on 10 April 1952. This was to
make an effort with integrated and the effectiveness of the NATO military
force. Shape stand for Supreme Headquarters Allied Power Europe. SHAPE
advises NATO on the military issues and looks over aspects of the Allied
Command Europe. SHAPE was created in 1951 and is based in Belgium.
Allied Command Transformation
The Allied Command Transformation was designed to do one job. ACT had the
responsibilities to carry out training exercises for the military, educate the
troops as well. This is based in Norfolk, Virginia in the US. This is well organised
and will operate with the other 2 main institutions. This was created in 2003
after the NATO was restructuring.
NATO’s role during and after the Cold War
NATO was set up as a military aid. The main role that NATO had during the
Cold War was to unify and strengthen the Western allies by sending over
troops and equipment to support them when invasion in the western Europe
happen primary purpose was to strengthen the Western area to prevent or
stop any invasion by the Soviet Union. NATO was relying on the threat of USA
having nuclear weapons which would be used on the Warsaw Pacts as they
had a very large ground force. The NATO was always there and ready to supply
troops instantly if there was any issues in the Western area in Europe.
After the Cold War finished NATO wasn’t needed to supply troops to prevent
attacks. NATO is still in operation today but they have slightly changed what
their main role was to do. NATO is still expanding by this day and getting more
power. NATO’S role now after the cold war is the safeguarding of the freedom
and the security of the members within the NATO with political needs and
Uks involvement with NATO and impact on the public services
The United Kingdom is a very influential member in NATO. As a part of NATO
we are required to supply our forces when needed. The UK’s forces are always
ready and quickly organised when it comes to dealing with international issues.
As the UK’s armed forces are always ready we are a rapid reaction team when
it comes to NATO missions. UK’s role is to maintain peace around Europe. In
return of being a member and supplying our armed forces other countries
within the NATO membership will hep defend each other at all cost. There are
many impact of being in the NATO membership. An operation where USA and
British troops were needed and sent to another country was Afghanistan. An
impact that it has on the public services is having to send out troops whenever
they are needed instantly. This can interrupt with any operations or training
exercises they may be occurring. The cost of sending over equipment to
Afghanistan was a large amount of money. Troops in the armed forces would
have to spend a lot of time away from their families and friends when NATO
The amnesty international is a campaign that fights against the abuse of
human rights for example bringing torturers to justice.
IMPACT ON UK PUBLIC SERVICES
The arms trade treaty is a treaty which means it controls the amount of
weapons transferred between countries which can reduce conflict. Also if a
country knows that the weapons that they are selling are going to be used for
crimes against humanity or war crimes they must top the transfer. The UK
signed the treaty on the 3rd June 2013. This might affect the UK public services
as if they want to transfer weapons to another country if a war is occurring
they might not be able to, as the amnesty international might think it is a
involved with war crimes. This will affect the troops in the other country as
they will not have the right equipment which will put them more at risk.
JOINT MILITARY WORK AND ARREST WARRANTS
Before any idea can be used in a military operation or for another situation, it
will always have to go through a decision process until it is finally able to be
applied. Some decisions that are made in the international institutions nearly
always affect the UK public services.
The armed services in the United Kingdom will have to work together with
other international organisations to resolve a problem. The UK’s armed forces
have been involved in many joint military operations with other countries. The
advantage of joining up in operations is that there will be more resources to
use and it the army will be stronger along with being more power. One
operation which was a joint military task was with USA and British forces that
were sent out to get involve with the war against Afghanistan. This military
operation happened in 2001 and lasted 13 years and ended in 2014. This joint
military operation cost the UK forces over 37 billion pounds. The different
countries came together to work alongside each other to get the job done
more effectively. An arrest warrant is used all the time in the European Union.
This is where other countries within the EU will communicate to different
countries to arrest a certain individual who has fled their country as they have
committed a crime, such as if an individual commits a crime in Britain and
leaves the country instantly and travels to Spain, Britain can send out an arrest
warrant on that person to Spain who would then take it upon themselves to
find that individual and arrest him/her. Spain would then transport the
criminal back to the arresting country which is Britain who would take action
and send them to prison etc. The advantage of this is that the criminal who has
have left the UK can be tracked down by the police or army in another country
then arrested. A disadvantage of this could be the time is takes to find certain
IMPACT ON THE PUBLIC SERVICES
The United Kingdom is one of the members, they have to follow and agree
with certain things and rules when they signed up to become a member. The
positive side of being a member within NATO is that if the UK is attacked by
another country, member within NATO with give the UK military support which
is written in Article 5. This is an advantage as the UK knows they have people
to help her out if needed to. All members are expected to provide their armed
services to operations when they are needed. The UK armed forces budget is
around £60 billion and United Kingdom contribution to NATO is £150 million.
This is a negative side of being a member within NATO. This is because the UK
has to contribute £150 million pounds which is a very large of money which
could be spent on something else such as the NHS or the environment. Overall
the UK armed services supplies 8% of NATO troops all together.
The impact that the armed services have to deal with when on joint military
operations is that individuals have to spend time away from families; soldiers
may suffer from depression and might affect their performance in the services.
The economic can be affected when having to buy new equipment, fuel cost of
transporting troops over along with transporting vehicles etc. This can come up
to a large amount of money which can affect the public services as they don’t
have access to spend huge amounts. A way that the arrest warrants can impact
the public services is because if an individual enters the United Kingdom the
armed service or police force will have to be sent out and search for him/her to
arrest them and send them back to the arresting country. The arrest warrant
system gets the job done a lot quicker as it find individuals a lot more quicker
and it is a lot more effective. This makes the UK even safer place.
LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF MEMBERSHIP
As the United Kingdom is a member of NATO. Before joining NATO, UK had to
agree with the rules set before signing the papers. The United Kingdom is
expected to follow every single rule that NATO have decided in imply and show
discipline. By following the different institutions rules this can resist UK on how
they do certain things. Although this may limit some tactics, they are there to
keep countries safe and peaceful. They are expected to be responsible
members. For example if NATO needs some of the UK armed forces, they are
expected to deploy their troops to wherever they are needed. The UK sent
over hundreds of troops including aircraft to the Eastern Europe. This was one
of the largest build ups with NATO services since the cold war happened. The
reason why the UK sent over hundreds of troops and aircraft was because of
the increase of the Russian military manoeuvres.
ASSIGNMENT 2 – INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND HUMAN RIGHTS
The Geneva Convention was set up in 1851 with
12 nations. There were four parts of the whole
Geneva Convention. This was created to set a
guideline of laws.
The first and second Geneva Convention was set
up to help the military personnel as the Red Cross
was involved. They were there to get out the
wounded and ill out of the war zone first. The Red
Cross had another aim of identifying the dead quickly, and they should all be collected
quickly. The Red Cross were there to help and should not be attacked.
The third Geneva Convention was the prisoners of war. The prisoners did not have to give
any information apart from their name, number and Red Cross know that you are allowed
to keep your human rights
The Fourth Geneva Convention had a set of treaties to protect civilians from being arrested
when they haven’t committed the crime, to protect civilians from being raped or assaulted
also force into prostitution also to accept everyone even if their race, religion and gender is
different and allow people to have a family. They are attempting to keep the wounded or
dead well looked after during battles and make sure people have their rights. The Geneva
Convention was an international discussion to help all the dead or injured soldiers along
with helping the civilians during wartime.
The Universal Declaration on Human Rights 1948
The Universal Declaration on Human Rights 1948 is a document
of the human rights. This is still a foundation for the human
rights in present day. This was taken upon by the “general
assembly of United Nations” in Paris on the 10th December. This
lays out human rights in over international countries, which
apply, to everyone. These are things like the right to live, learn
and more. This is here to attempt to keep everyone protected by
having rights such as the right to live, right to believe, right to education and more.
European Convention on Human Rights
The European convention on human rights is treaty that
was created in 1950. There are many different articles in
the treaty that protects each section of the human rights.
This allows everyone to have their own rights, even if it’s
different to others. There are over 47 states along with
the UK that signed up to this treaty. This means the UK commits to making sure that the
convention rights are being followed. This treaty is trying to attempt to upload the human
rights and make sure that everyone feels accepted and equal.
Human Rights Act 1998
The human right act was a law set up in 1998. This meant that individuals could defend their
“rights in the UK courts or even in public organisations”. The human rights act is there to
make sure that everyone is treated equally, with respect and fairness even if they are
different. The treaty is here to uphold the rights of everyone even if their religion or skin
colour is different.
TORTURE – Torture goes against the human rights act that was put in place because it is a
way of punishment to someone to gather certain information from that individual or torture
is also uses to correct any disobedience that has been shown. An example of is CIA
waterboarding. This is where an individual is held down, with a cloth or rag covering their
face, and then water is being poured over the person face to simulate drowning. This makes
that individual feel discomfort and have extreme physical and mental stress. When Barack
Obama became president in 2008 he put a sanction on waterboarding to ban it for all the US
EXTRA-JUDICIAL KILLINGS – This also goes against the human rights as it is where any of the
public services feel to go out and kill individuals without getting any permission or approval
to do this act. An example of could be in WW2 or in Afghanistan where two marines killed
some people. In WW2 the soldiers did not have any permission or were not sanctioned by
the law to kill innocent people. The international institutions responded to this by giving out
war crimes to the leaders who demanded this to happen and they put sanctions in to
prevent any actions like this to happen again.
ETHNIC CLEANSING – Ethnic cleansing violates the human rights because it is where a group
of people armed go into an area where they don’t like to get rid and move the people out
from the area by using violence and abusive language. An example of ethnic cleansing would
be in Bosnia. A leader called Radovan Karadzic was responsible for a massacre of over 7000
Bosnia’s of Muslim boys and men in Srebrenica. The international institutions responded to
this act by putting sanctions making sure that ethnic cleansing would not happen again
(trying to reduce the risk of this act) the sanctions were put into place as this violated the
human rights in many ways.
GENOCIDE – Genocide goes against and violates the human rights. Genocide is a where a
group of people destroy an area where certain people live to get rid of them by mass
murder. An example of genocide is Hitler. Hitler committed lots of genocide when he was in
power. Hitler ordered mass murders on areas where Jews lived to get rid of most of them
and make other slaves in camps. The way the institutions responded to this was by making
sure the human rights act was followed by everyone and outing in sanctions. Another
example of genocide was in Bosnia when Radovan Karadzic was a leader. Radovan Karadzic
was against the religion of Muslims as their beliefs were different to his. Radovan wanted to
get rid of all the Muslims are sent units to different areas to kill Muslims.
WAR CRIMES – When war crimes have been done, it violates the human rights because war
crimes are the acts that occur which are against the laws but are done as they think it is the
right thing to do during that certain time. Examples of war crimes are things such as when
the UK sold cluster bombs to another country or a man called Radovan Karadzic committed
over 11 acts of war crimes. Radovan Karadzic was a leader of the Serb army unit. During the
battle in Bosnia, Karadzic committed over 11 counts of genocide and killed over 10000
civilians in bombings. The international institutions responded to this act by placing
sanctions and laws to prevent this happening again.
The UK has many different roles to uphold in the international human rights. The UK is also
a permanent member of the security council of the United Nation along with the UK being a
member of NATO. The UKs main and key roles in human rights is in the military and trades.
The UK has been a part of many different international situations where they have had to
uphold human rights when they have been violated.
The Bosnia war was an international conflict, which happened in Bosnia itself and
Herzegovina in the years of 1992 to 1995. At the beginning of this battle, there were large
amounts of violent crimes being done. This conflicted lasted three whole years and ended
on the 14th December 1995. As the UK is a member of NATO and agreed to supply troops
whenever there were countries being attacked. The UK only got involved as of NATO. This is
when the public services in the UK were needed. The UK sent troops over to Bosnia along
the RAF doing multiply airstrikes on enemy positions (NATO airstrikes). The UN
peacekeeping team, were also sent over to Bosnia to help. The main roles of the UN
peacekeepers are to help countries that have been destroyed by conflicts and to create
good conditions to make sure that peace will last. As the UK had a role to uphold the
international human rights. They needed to make sure, if human rights were being violated
or not. There were loads of different actions that violated the human rights in this conflict. A
man called Radovan Karadzic was a Serb leader who was a part of the Bosnia conflict. This
man is known of the terrifying acts he committed during this war. His man was accused of
11 acts of genocide along with war crimes that all went against the humanity in the
international criminal court. This man was responsible for 10000 civilian’s death as he
ordered bombings everywhere. He also committed ethnic cleansing on Muslim boy and
men. He was responsible for the massacre of 7000 deaths in Srebrenica. The UK upheld the
international human rights by bombing the Serbs.
The public service upholds human rights in many different ways. An example where the UK
public services have upheld human rights is in the police force. In the police, their main aim
is to uphold the right to liberty and security. The police are here to protect everyone and
make them feel safe where they live. Another service that upholds human rights is the
paramedics and ambulance force. They uphold human rights international and locally. They
aim to uphold the right to live. This is because they will help everyone who is in need of
Another example where human rights have been upheld international is the fight on
terrorism. NATO cares about the rights that everyone has. In addition, their right to live. The
UK aim to uphold the right of the freedom of speech. People are sometimes killed on what
they think as it is against what others believe. This is why the UK makes sure that human
rights are upheld international. The UK always upholds human rights internationally. This is
because they want to prevent any wars and make everyone feel safe and equal to one
The UK is very effectively when upholding human rights. NATOs make sure that human
rights are upheld in every countries and everyone feels equal. There have been many
different cases where human rights have been violated during conflicts and NATO makes
sure they deal with them situations effectively and fast.
When human rights are not upheld in conflicts horrifying crimes can be committed. Human
rights were violated in the Bosnia conflict. A man called Radovan Karadzic committed lots of
war crimes and genocides, killing innocent people and getting rid of groups of people
because of their belief such, he was responsible for the massacre of 7000 Muslim boys and
men in Srebrenica. This act was a horrific, many innocent people died during the conflict in
Bosnia. This was because Radovan Karadzic violated the human rights and took things into
this own hands. He tried to get rid of all the Muslims that lived in Bosnia, as he did not like
their religion or beliefs (people have the rights to their own belief and religion). This is why
the UK had to be involved to make sure that human rights become effective again.
The positive things that come out of the human rights being upheld are, it protects people
everywhere. Human rights give people the right to live and security, which helps to protect
each individual. Human rights also help people not to have too much power against the
people who are lower than they are. The good thing why the UK upholds human rights
international is people will be fairer as they have the right to live, education, peace and fair
trail etc. This creates each country to become more peaceful as there will be less crimes
happening as everyone feels as equal as the people around them. If the UK international
people did not uphold human rights, people will have fewer rights and will allow people to
take advantage of that. This could cause people not to have to right to believe and religions.
When rights are, upheld people can become unsafe around other people.
Overall human rights are upheld international by the UK as they are effective at their role
when it comes to other countries not wanting to follow the rights that have been put down
to make it more peaceful and safer. If human rights were not created, then people would
abuse the power and do what they want to other individuals. The human rights were set up
to maintain peace and security in all countries to stop violent acts from happening again.