Hunting

Hunting

Hunting

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I – Search Outline:

Hunting

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I – Search Outline: Hunting



I. Introduction: Definition and History
A. Hunting has been practiced by our earliest ancestors to our most recent relatives,
but in a time when meat and animal parts can be easily store bought whenever
necessary, the necessity of this ancient tradition is beginning to be questioned.
B. Background on Topic
1. I define hunting as a tradition practiced by our earliest ancestors that has
many different uses that are helpful not only to people themselves but also
to nature and animal ecosystems.
a) Although the word hunting may not have existed for a large
portion of human history, the tradition behind it has been practiced
since the dawn of human beings. Ancient human beings used the
practice of hunting to obtain food and other animal byproducts
such as fur, tusks, or antlers. They would even tame the animals
they caught to use them as a mode of transportation, to help them
harvest crops, and to crossbreed them to create new modified
species.



b) There are many different ways that people define hunting, some in
support of this practice and others in opposition to it. With these
varied opinions on hunting we can find a common ground and
agree that hunting can be defined as to chase or search for (game
or other wild animals) for the purpose of catching or killing.
c) In spite of these facts there are still many inaccurate assumptions
and stereotypes cast onto the majority of hunters such as that all
hunters trespass and poach, that hunters use bait to confuse animals
and make their hunt easier, that hunters are wasteful, and that
hunters rely on new technology to make their hunt successful.
Although these stereotypes may be true for some hunters who spoil
the tradition and break the law, these assumptions do not represent
the population of hunters.
C. Introduction of sources
1. Throughout my research, I have found many different argument and ideas
on the topic of hunting.
a) Alaska to Face New Bans on Hunting by Brulliard, K. from the
Washington Post.
(1) This source argues that hunting, when not properly
regulated and improperly enforced, can bring to the decline
of hunted animal populations.
b) Hunting is Crucial to Conservation by Emslie, R., & Knight, M.
from The Independent.
(1) This source discussed how trophy hunting has helped
conservation efforts across the African continent.
c) Grizzly Bear Trophy Hunt is a Sport like Dogfighting by Suzuki,
D. from The Daily Gleaner.
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(1) This source discussed how government corruption and
improper enforcement of laws can reap negative
consequences from trophy hunting.
d) An Unlikely Boom in Trophy Hunting by Helliker, K. from The
Wall Street Journal.
(1) This source discussed how many are gaining interest in
trophy hunting and how people are willing to pay
exorbitant amounts of money to participate in trophy hunts.
e) Hunting, Climate Change, and The Future of Food by Romeo, N.
from The Daily Beast.
(1) This source discussed topics such as GMO’s and chemicals
in meats and concluded that the only solution to this
problem was to hunt for your food.
f) Can Trophy Hunting Actually Help Conservation? By Goldman, J.
G. from Conservation Magazine
(1) The author discussed the economical and conservation
benefits of trophy hunting and supported those discussions
with evidence from scientific studies.
g) Economic and Conservation Significance of the Trophy Hunting
Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa by Lindsey, P., Roulet, P., &
Romanach, S. from The African Wildlife Conservation Fund
(1) This source covered topics such as how trophy hunting has
helped local wildlife, conservation efforts, and economies
in the African continent.
2. Each of my interviews contained very unique viewpoints from people that
have many differing opinions on the topic of hunting.
a) Interview with avid hunter: Joe Grisamore
(1) Throughout my interview with Mr. Grisamore we covered
topics such as trophy hunting, how hunting helps
conservation, and how hunting ensures that animal meat is
chemical free.
b) Interview with PETA Representative: Melissa White
(1) Ms. White claimed that hunting was only necessary during
prehistoric times and also that animals are self-regulating
and hunting doesn’t help that process.
c) Interview with DNR Conservation Workers: Mark Alessi and Tim
Schweizer
(1) Mr. Alessi and Mr. Schweizer explained the many benefits
that hunting has on wildlife populations and conservation
efforts.
3. Throughout all of my sources I saw many common trends between them.
Some of my sources were very biased and firm on their opinions, whereas
others based their opinions off of facts and scientific findings, instead of
self-convictions.
a) Some of my sources connected with each other. For example,
some of my sources discussed trophy hunting in African nations
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and they all shared most of the same ideals and opinions on this
topic. And also the article Hunting, Climate Change, and The
Future of Food connected with my interview with the hunter, Joe
Grisamore, in the way that they both discussed how hunting can be
used as a way to provide meat that is guaranteed to be free of
chemicals and GMO’s.
b) Although some sources had connections to each other and their
arguments, other sources completely disagreed with each other’s
opinions. For example, some of my sources discussed the many
benefits of hunting and trophy hunting, whereas sources like my
interview with a PETA representative completely condoned the act
of hunting, using animal byproducts, or even consuming animal
meats.
c) What I found surprising when gathering these sources was the way
that some of them connected hand in hand. For example, one of
my sources discussed the massive amounts of revenue generated
from trophy hunting and then the next source discussed where this
revenue went and how it contributed to the continuation of
conservation efforts.
D. Since we have seen that there are many differing opinions on hunting, we can
conclude that further research needs to be conducted to determine which of these
opinions carries the most truth.
E. Trophy hunting and hunting in general can be helpful and have a positive effect
on animal ecosystems when laws are enforced to prevent illegal hunting and
poaching. Hunting has helped humans and animals since the beginning of
mankind and it can continue to be beneficial in the world today.
II. Argument
A. Throughout the past few years hunting has been in the spotlight of controversy as
to if it is still relevant and humane. Hunting has been practiced by our earliest
ancestors to our most recent relatives. This practice is being questioned in a time
when meat and animal parts can be easily store bought whenever necessary.
Although still today many still treat it as tradition and partake in it regularly. For
some who live isolated from modern society in places like Alaska and Siberia,
hunting is their only way to put food on the table.
1. In this paper I will discuss many sub-topics included in the controversy of
hunting. First, I will discuss if hunting is helpful or harmful for animal
ecosystems. This is an important because this determines if it is a helpful
practice that should be continued or a harmful one that should be stopped.
Second, I will overview the many argument for and against trophy hunting
and how it can actually help local communities, entire economies, and
even animals thrive. This is important because lately this has been one of
the most controversial topics that is directly related to my main topic of
hunting. Third, I will discuss how economies and industries are affected
by trophy hunting. This is important because this determines who would
be affected in the event that trophy hunting were to be severely regulated
or banned. Fourth, I will determine if hunting and trophy hunting actually
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contributes to the continuation of conservation efforts to save endangered
species and shrinking habitats for animals. This is important because this
determines if hunting and trophy hunting have a positive or negative
environmental effect. Lastly, I will discuss how, in certain situations,
hunting can bring negative effects to animals and natural ecosystems and
how these negative effects can be prevented. This is important because
this will show what needs to improved to ensure that hunting leaves the
environment unharmed when it is practiced.
2. Hunting is still very necessary in our modern society because it produces
large amounts of profits that go back into continued conservation efforts
which, in turn help the environment thrive, it prevents invasive species
from destroying natural ecosystems and bringing wildlife to extinction,
and for many, it is their only source of food that is free of chemical free
and non-processed.
B. Section 1: Is Hunting Helpful or Harmful for Animal Ecosystems?
1. Many question if hunting actually gives back to the natural environment
which, in turn, leads some to think that it is harmful and brings negative
effects to animal ecosystems. Although it seems blatantly obvious that the
act of killing an innocent animal is inhumane and extremely harmful to
animal populations and their continued survival, the research I have
discovered has shown that hunting, in fact, has the complete opposite
effects on animal species as a whole. Multiple sub-topics need to be
covered in order to properly answer this crucial question. First, how
hunting regulates animal populations to ensure that they do not grow out
of control and cause imbalance in natural ecosystems. And Second, how
the revenue generated from hunting can preserve endangered animal
species and keep them from becoming extinct.
2. Hunting, when practiced properly, can actually help animal ecosystems
thrive and maintain balance between different animal species to ensure
that natural ecosystems are not destroyed.
3. In spite of this, people have began to focus on the fact that a small number
of animals have to be killed which some would see as highly inhumane or
harmful for animal ecosystems.
a) Though this fact seems indisputable, a majority of the animals
killed are either invasive species which would cause harm to other
animal species if not controlled by hunting or problem animals
which are usually diseased or can cause harm to herds of animals if
not hunted. So this means that a small number of animals must be
hunted in order to ensure that the entire species survives.
4. When a specific species of animal is allowed to grow exponentially large
it becomes an invasive species. Many problems can occur in animal
ecosystems and entire natural ecosystems because of an invasive species.
First, the invasive species can cause harm to local plant life which, for
many other animal species, is their only source of food. This can happen
through over-consumption or contamination caused by the invasive
species. This can become a major problem when multiple species of
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animals main source of food is cut off. Which, in turn, can lead to a major
decline in animal species that rely on plant life for food or even extinction
of those animal species. Second, animal species which are pray for the
invasive species can find themselves in danger of extinction when they are
outnumbered by predators. This can not only lead to problems for the
animal species that is prey but also the invasive predator species
themselves. Once the invasive predator’s main source of food, the prey, is
near extinction or completely extinct, the predator will no longer have a
constant and viable source of food. This, in turn, could lead to the
endangerment or complete extinction of the invasive species. Lastly,
invasive species can cause problems and even harm to humans. If the
population of an animal, even as seemingly harmless as deer, became
invasive, this could cause major problems to homeowners, business
owners, and nearly any part of human society. This is because this
uncontrolled invasive species would eventually run out of land that is free
of humans to inhabit. Once this occurs, the invasive species would move
to areas populated by humans which can cause many problems such as the
destruction of property through foraging and digging, which could bring
destruction to gardens and greenhouses. Also, the leaving behind of
animal feces which could become of great annoyance to people. And
lastly, the possible harm that could come to children and even adults if an
invasive predator species were to become rampant near a human populated
area. A way to prevent the natural and societal problems that come from
invasive species is hunting. Hunting is one of the most viable and
effective ways to prevent the problem of invasive species. This is because
it specifically targets the animal species that are becoming invasive. In
turn, stopping the problem before it begins without causing any negative
effect to other animal species or the environment. These claims can be
supported by the words of DNR conservation workers, Tim Schweizer and
Mark Alessi. When asked if hunting is helpful or harmful for animal
ecosystems, they responded by stating that, “Hunting is one of the most
important tools we have for wildlife management in Illinois. Hunting
helps maintain wildlife populations, preventing disease and damage
problems that might be seen from overpopulation. Hunting helps maintain
the balance needed in our ecosystem” (2016).
5. Hunting not only solves the problem of invasive species but also provides
a large majority of conservation efforts’ budgets. Depending on the type
of hunt, it may cost anywhere from ten to twenty dollars to in excess of
multiple thousands of dollars. This money is in turn put towards the
continuation of conservation efforts that save animals species and natural
environments in order to ensure that future generation will be able to enjoy
them. This process can be proven by the words of avid hunter, Joe
Grisamore. He claimed that hunting was very beneficial to animal
ecosystems because it ensures that invasive species are controlled and that
the profits from hunting are put back into conservation efforts to maintain
the environment. He also explained that the profits from hunting fees go
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into maintaining wildlife habitat and controlling wildlife populations.
This cycle of conservation can only be maintained by the large constant
revenue stream the hunting provides.
6. The benefits to conservation efforts from hunting can not only be seen by
hunting in general but also trophy hunting
C. Trophy Hunting
1. To begin this discussion on trophy hunting we must first determine what
exactly trophy hunting details. The definition of trophy hunting is the
selective hunting of wild game for human recreation. The trophy is the
animal or part of the animal kept, and usually displayed, to represent the
success of the hunt. The primary game sought is usually the oldest and
most mature animal from a given population. Though this practice may
seem appalling, it is a actually a very selective and well thought out
process which brings great benefit to hunted and non-hunted animal
species. Trophy hunters are not allowed to slaughter any innocent animal
they choose in any manner they please. These trophy hunts, when
practiced properly, are regulated to protect young animals and female
animals from being hunted. The only animals that are permitted to be
hunted are a small number of old adult males which have outlived their
usefulness to the herd. This selective process ensures that herds are not
driven to extinction by animals in the herd that choose to put their survival
above the survival of the herd. To properly grasp the issue of trophy
hunting we must break it into two parts. First, how economies and
industries are affected by trophy hunting. And Second, how trophy
hunting helps continue conservation efforts.
2. Though trophy hunting seems like an inhumane and cruel tradition, it
actually can bring animal species out of endangerment and ensure that
natural ecosystems are not destroyed.
3. In my interview with PETA representative, Melissa White, she took a firm
stance against trophy hunting. She states, “Animals on canned-hunting
ranches are often accustomed to humans and may be native to the area,
raised elsewhere and brought in, or purchased from individuals who are
trafficking in unwanted or surplus animals from zoos and likely even
circuses. On private properties that are set up as for-profit hunting reserves
or game ranches, hunters can pay to kill native and exotic species in
´canned hunts´ These animals are hunted and killed for the sole purpose of
providing hunters with a ´trophy´ Because these animals are usually kept
in fenced enclosures, they never stand a chance of escaping, fighting back,
or surviving. Hunters kill these animals solely in order to hang their heads,
horns, or antlers on the wall and eat their meat. This gives hunters an
unfair advantage even when they’re obeying the laws and killing “freerange”
animals¨ (2016).
a) Thought this might seems like a terrible and cruel process,
properly practiced trophy hunting is not practiced in this manner.
Most animals that are trophy hunted live in nature preserves that
are owned by governments or private land owners. Because of
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this, trophy hunters have to make the effort to hunt the animal and
track it before they can kill it. This is opposite of how Mrs. White
explains the trophy hunting process. She makes it seem like trophy
hunted animals are lined up in front of the hunters and allowed to
be freely killed at the hunters leisure, which is contrary to what a
properly regulated trophy hunt looks like.
4. Trophy hunting that takes place in exotic areas such as Namibia and The
Congo is not available to hunters for free. Hunters will pay exorbitant
amounts of money to participate in these trophy hunts, sometimes in
excess of $350,000! In the article “ An Unlikely Boom in Trophy
Hunting”, journalist Kevin Helliker takes a bold stance for trophy hunting
by focusing on how many find enjoyment and fulfillment from it and how
multi-million dollar industries are funded by it. He states, ¨These ‘big
game’ hunts can cost upwards of $50,000 and people are willing to pay
that much on a regular basis which explains why ‘big game’ hunting has
such a large impact on business and the economy” (2016). Mr. Helliker
says, “Trophy hunts are a boon to companies like 4-year old KUIU, a
maker of lightweight yet warm hunting apparel and gear” (2016). Because
of this, trophy hunting and hunting in general is funding an entire industry.
Gary N. Thornton, chief executive of the Wild Sheep Foundation
convention, a worldwide hunting convention states, “There’s definitely a
driving interest in extreme hunting” (Helliker 2016). This shows that
trophy hunting drives an entire industry and is growing increasingly
popular, in spite of the recent controversy surrounding it.
5. Trophy hunting is not only funding an entire industry but also a majority
of the world’s conservation efforts. Trophy hunting’s positive effects are
especially prevalent throughout the African continent, where trophy
hunting is becoming increasingly popular. In the article, “Can Trophy
Hunting Actually Help Conservation?”, Conservation Magazine journalist,
Jason G. Goldman discusses how in spite of all the seemingly negative
consequences of trophy hunting, there are actually many benefits to
allowing its continued practice. He focuses on the positive effects that
trophy hunting is causing in the African country of Namibia. Mr.
Goldman begins his article by asking, “Can trophy hunting ever be a
useful tool in the conservationist’s toolbox?” (2014). He begins to answer
this question by mentioning that trophy hunters will pay exorbitant
amounts of money, sometimes in excess of $350,000, to hunt animals
native to the African environment. In turn, this money is given back to the
Namibian government to support continued conservation efforts and the
further population growth of endangered animal species. Later in his
article, Mr. Goldman mentions a study conducted by the Mpala Research
Centre to interview 150 people who have hunted in Africa or plan to hunt
in Africa in the future. Mr. Goldman states, “A majority of hunters –
eighty-six percent! – told the researchers they preferred hunting in an area
where they knew that a portion of the proceeds went back into local
communities. Nearly half of the hunters they interviewed also indicated
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that they’d be willing to pay an equivalent price for a poorer trophy if it
was a problem animal that would have had to be killed anyway” (2014).
This statement indicates not only that the Namibian economy is
benefitting from trophy hunting but also that the trophy hunters
themselves keep the preservation of the natural environment in mind while
and before they start their hunts. Mr. Goldman states, “Approximately
nine out of every ten hunters said they’d be willing to hunt in places that
were poor for wildlife viewing or which lacked attractive scenery. That is,
they said that they were willing to hunt in areas that would not have
otherwise been able to reap an economic benefit from ecotourism” (2014).
This means that because of trophy hunting, land that was once
unprofitable can become very profitable. Mr. Goldman then addresses the
fact that people might think that the survey results were fraudulent in order
to cast good light on trophy hunters. He states, “Leader-Williams
describes how the legalization of white rhinoceros hunting in South Africa
motivated private landowners to reintroduce the species onto their land.
As a result, the country saw an increase in white rhinos from fewer than
one hundred individuals to more than 11,000, even while a limited number
were killed as trophies” (2014). This proves that trophy hunting, in certain
situations, can actually help economies and animal ecosystems to thrive.
Mr. Goldman ends his discussion on trophy hunting by saying, “Still, the
elephants of Zimbabwe and the white rhinos of South Africa seem to
suggest that it is possible for conservation and trophy hunting to coexist, at
least in principle. It is indeed a tricky, but not impossible, balance to
strike” (2014).
6. Though both hunting and trophy hunting have positive effects on the
environment when practiced properly, they can lead to the destruction of
natural ecosystems when abused or practiced improperly.
D. When Can Hunting Bring Negative Effects to Natural Ecosystems?
1. Although I have discussed how hunting benefits animal ecosystems
throughout this paper, I will now discuss how hunting and trophy hunting
can bring harm to the environment due to government’s failure to enforce
laws regarding hunting and due to hunting animal species to extinction. I
will also discuss how to properly prevent trophy hunting from bringing
harm to the environment.
2. Though hunting can bring harm to the environment when not properly
regulated, this harm can easily be prevented through laws that effectively
regulate hunting.
3. Though the harm that hunting can cause when not properly practiced can
be prevented some believe that all forms of hunting are harmful to animals
and natural ecosystems in any situation. PETA representative, Melissa
White is an example of someone who vehemently opposes all forms of
hunting. She states, “Hunting might have been necessary for human
survival in prehistoric times, but today, most hunters stalk and kill animals
merely for the thrill of it, not out of necessity. This unnecessary, violent
form of “entertainment” tears animal families apart and leaves countless
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animals orphaned or badly injured when hunters miss their targets”
(2016).
a) Though this description of hunting may be true for illegal forms of
hunting such as poaching, it is not representative of the population
of responsible hunters. Most responsible hunters ensure that an
animal is dead when it is shot and not left to suffer and die slowly.
She also claims that hunting is a “violent form of ‘entertainment’”
(2016). This is untrue because most hunters hunt in order to bring
food home for their families and enjoy being out in nature.
Hunters do not merely hunt for the enjoyment of killing an animal
but to experience the natural world on a personal level and for the
challenge of tracking an animal.
4. Many laws and regulations are in effect from multiple governments and
organizations to ensure that hunting is done safely and does not bring
harm to animals and the environment around them, but when these laws
are not enforced, it can lead to the extinction of animal species and the
destruction of natural environments. An example of this can be found in
the Canadian province of British Columbia. In the article “Grizzly Bear
Trophy Hunt Is a Sport Like Dogfighting”, Canadian academic David
Suzuki argues that the Canadian territory of British Columbia is not as
serious as they should be about preventing the hunting of bears. Although
British Columbia has prohibited the hunting of “spirit bears”, or bears with
white fur, bears with black coats can still carry the spirit bear gene. Mr.
Suzuki claims that “the British Columbian government has never
recognized the Coastal First Nations ban on trophy hunting in the Great
Bear Rainforest” (2016). This is of serious concern because killing these
bears, only for the purpose of obtaining a trophy to take home jeopardizes
their species and may take away future generations opportunity to admire
the bears in their natural habitat. Mr. Suzuki also claims that, “The bears
eat salmon and drag the carcasses into the forest, providing food for other
animals, like eagles, and fertilizer for the massive rainforest trees” (2016).
Because of these bears important role in the British Columbian ecosystem,
the extinction or decline of bear populations would lead to a drastic
change in British Columbia’s ecosystem. Government corruption is not
the only problem that can lead to improper forms of hunting.
Overshooting, or the act of killing more animals than a species is able to
replace through reproduction can become a serious problem to natural
ecosystems. In the article, “Economic and Conservation Significance of
the Trophy Hunting Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa”, biologists and
conservationists, P.A. Lindsey, P.A. Roulet, and S.S. Romanach discuss
how overshooting has led to the decline of animal species in some parts of
Africa. They state, “Most state wildlife departments lack the resources to
census wildlife populations regularly and quotas are often based on
guesswork (Caro et al., 1998a). In some areas, aerial censuses are done,
but do not provide accurate estimates for small species or carnivores, are
unsuitable for establishing quotas for blocks smaller than the home ranges
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of large species, and often do not involve consultation with local people
(Taylor, 2001). Unsurprisingly therefore, quotas for some species are
clearly inappropriate in parts of Africa. In Tanzania, species with patchy
or limited distributions (e.g., sitatunga Tragelaphus spekei, puku Kobus
vardoni, kudu Tragelaphus spp.) should be hunted more conservatively
(Caro et al., 1998a), and in southeastern Cameroon, the current off-takes
of bongo may be unsustainable (Elkan, 1994; Roulet, 2004a). In
Zimbabwe, Grobbelaar and Masulani (2003) suggest that quotas for
buffalo and elephant should be reduced to address declining trophy
quality, and Loveridge and Macdonald (2002) have suggested that lion
quotas should be reduced” (2006). This research indicates that
overshooting can become a major problem when quotas for certain species
are not taken correctly.
5. Although I have covered some of the problems that improper hunting can
cause, I will now discuss how to prevent those problems. These problems
could easily be avoided by the passing of regulations by governments to
make sure that animal populations are properly monitored and that species
that are endangered are not hunted into extinction. The solution to this
problem can best be summarized in the aforementioned article, “Economic
and Conservation Significance of the Trophy Hunting Industry in SubSaharan
Africa”. The authors state, “Some of the problems associated
with the trophy hunting industry could be addressed by improved
enforcement of existing legislation. Improved enforcement could be
conducted by state wildlife agencies or by an independent body. We
suggest that hunting operators should be forced to belong to stateapproved
national hunting associations (with representation from
mainstream conservation organisations) with the power to remove or
suspend hunting licenses in the event of non compliance to hunting
legislation. Annual membership levies would be used by the hunting
association to monitor compliance to hunting quotas, minimum trophy
sizes, use of qualified staff, and contributions to local communities and
anti-poaching efforts” (2006).
III. Conclusion
1. Throughout this essay I have covered topics such as If hunting is helpful
or harmful for animal ecosystems, If trophy hunting should be continued,
and the negative effects of improper hunting and how the can be
prevented. Through this research on hunting I have concluded that when
hunting is done properly and regulated it brings great benefit to not only
humans but animals themselves.
2. Hunting is still necessary today because it not only regulates animal
populations and keeps the natural environment in check, but allows
humans to enjoy a chemical free source of food in a world where nearly
everything we eat is processed.
3. In order to maintain hunting in the future and ensure that it is just as
helpful to the environment as it is now we must ensure that regulations
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and rules are enforced by government agencies in order to prevent illegal
forms of hunting and the extinction of animal species because of hunting.
IV. Reflection
1. What went well during this process was that it gave me an organized guide
that will help me when I write my final essay. The amount of detail that I
used in my body paragraphs will allow me to effectively write my final
essay. By writing this outline, I was able to organize my thoughts and
research so that I am prepared to write my final essay.
2. What could have gone better during this process was I could have better
supported my counterarguments. Even though I presented the
counterarguments and supported them with my sources, I felt that they
were somewhat weak and lacked support. Otherwise, I felt that the rest of
my paper went well.
3. I can apply this process and the information I learned in my life by
applying what I have done in future essays to ensure that they are done in
an effective and timely manner.
V. References
Brulliard, K. (2016, 08/05). Alaska to face new bans on hunting. Washington Post Retrieved
from http://sks.sirs.com
Emslie, R., & Knight, M. (2016, 03/19). Hunting is crucial to conservation. The Independent
Retrieved from http://sks.sirs.com
Goldman, J. G. (2014, January 15). Can Trophy Hunting Actually Help Conservation? Retrieved
October 9, 2016, from

Can trophy hunting actually help conservation?


Helliker, K. (2015, 12/21). An unlikely boom in trophy hunting. Wall Street Journal Retrieved
from
http://sks.sirs.com
J. Grisamore, personal communication, September 28, 2016.
Lindsey, P., Roulet, P., & Romanach, S. (2006, October 27). Economic and conservation
significance of the trophy hunting industry in sub-Saharan Africa. Retrieved October 10,
2016, from
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http://www.africanwildlifeconservationfund.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Economicand-conservation-significance.pdf
M. White, personal communication, September 28, 2016.
Romeo, N. (2012, October 7). Hunting, Climate Change and the Future of Food. Retrieved
September 28, 2016, from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/10/08/huntingclimate-change-and-the-future-of-food.html?source=dictionary
Suzuki, D. (2016, 02/13). Grizzly bear trophy hunt is a sport like dogfighting. Daily Gleaner
Retrieved from http://sks.sirs.com
T. Schweizer, personal communication, October 11,2016.

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