CONSTRUCTIING A FARM FISH POND
Constructing a farm fish pond
Small scale farmers make up to 70% of the general population in the developing countries that are
characterized with scarcity of resources. The farmers manage many activities in crop cultivation and animal
rearing to mitigate risk and sustain their livelihoods. However, in many instances, they are not well considered
in the development programme that mostly directed towards and only for the good of the well-established
farmers. A good number of small scale farmers have little influence on policy and do not adequately access the
support services and technical inputs (Miller, 2009). Generally, they reconsidered to be a lower contribution to
the national food supply in any given country and the cost that is incurred in servicing them is considered to be
Small scale farmers that are situated particularly in the remote areas do face difficulties accessing
markets physically, their share in the market is constrained on the types and volumes of goods and services they
are able to produce and their potential benefit is restricted by the demand of their farm products. Their problems
get worsened by the fact that most of them are constrained to access to post-harvest facilities for their delicate
products such as the fish and their unstable market share.
Our discussion concentrate on a fish pond project for the small scale farmers. Our discussion purports
to address the risk management process for the project and will have a detailed look at the risk management
planning, identification and the quality risk analysis of the project. We shall identify the risk that the project is
exposed to and those issues that may impede or impair the completion of the project.
Positive risks associated with the project.
The project will benefits the society in many ways that can help small scale farmers achieve their
development plans. The following are some of the major positive outcomes that are expected from the project:
The water collected in farm ponds is stored and used for rearing fish.
Sustaining other activities that can be integrated by various farm enterprises to improve their
Farm ponds can contribute employment and income (Taylor, 2006.). Efforts that have been
made aim at having many small ponds. A little attention is given to quality during putting up
of ponds. Most of the national programmes that directly affect this projects seem to be greatly
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influenced political agenda instead on agenda that aims for the development of the rural areas.
This results to too many ponds being dug of which many of them are poorly constructed and
sited without sufficient technical support. Members of this programmed happen to be
subsistence farmers with inadequate capital and the required skill.
Reduction in crime-this is due to reduction of unemployment and commitment of individuals
who could have otherwise been idle.
food security as the project is meant to specifically address farming that is in charge of food
supply in any given economy
Emergency of more industries that depend on the project such as the food canning industry.
Some of the products obtained from the project can be sold to earn foreign exchange that will
boost the economy
Increase in the number of independent individuals- the income obtained by the individuals
will help the individuals make a living for their own and thus be independent.
Increase in health standards- through the project, individuals will be able to access balanced
feeding diets through the increase in food production.
The pond will also bring beauty to the land scape that attracts the eye.
As the water evaporates, it will cool the surrounding thus reducing the amount of heat.
The pond will act as homage to many aquatic organisms
The project will provide avenue for aquatic research and development
The pond will help microclimate the surrounding areas as they can obtain water from the
pond during dry seasons.
Stress relief- some people do find watching aquatic life enjoyable and brain relaxing
Negative risk associated with setting up a farm fish pond
A negative Risks is an uncertainty which has a negative impact on the successful completion of any given
project. Risks are mainly as a result of threats from project failures, disasters, deliberate attacks, unpredictable
root cause and natural causes. In the implementation of projects there are usually two types of events i.e.
positive events that are classified as opportunities and negative events classified as risks. In our case, the
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positive events are the benefits that are to be derived from the project. To start with, our project is to be situated
in remote areas where there is adequate land and readily available labour. The project will also address food
shortage in this region and in the country as a whole. Employment opportunities that will result from the project
will help the farmers sustain their livelihoods and raise the live standards of .the project will put in use the some
of the resources that have idle
The risks that are associate with any aquaculture can be grouped into public health, environmental
occupational and food safety. Each of this risk has a different type of other component that is either chemical or
biological (Anyanwu, 2007). The hazards that associated with this risk could either be physical, biological or
There are many physical factors that are associated with creating a farm fish pond for small scale farmers. The
following is a summary of the possible physical risks:
The workers in the fish pond are susceptible to a various injuries in the course of their work. The small
scale farmers in their informal sector are vulnerable since most of the governments have an apathy to
safety and health issues (Roberts, 2007). Stinging and cuts from fish spines that may arise during
handling of fish without appropriate handling measures, snakes and other aquatic organisms.
Waterborne diseases are also other risks that could face the project bearing the fact that most of the
farmers lack the health corrective measures and may end up contracting of diseases such as bilharzia,
typhoid among many others. Noise is also another physical risk factor that could result as a processing
feeds by the locally fabricated machines
The following are the chemical risks that are associated a farm fish pond:
Excessive use of chemicals such as inorganic fertilizers that are mostly applied to enrich the fish ponds are
caustic and can end up causing severe burns and skin irritations. Inhalation of some of the chemicals could lead
to respiratory problems and allergies (MJ, 2015). There also lies a risk of chronic and acute pollution of the
water ways. The oil spills from the machinery, pesticides and other xenobiotics will pollute the pond and other
water sources that poses danger to farmers and the surrounding region. The smoke, fumes and soot that is
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released from the water pumping machines feed mills and other machines get inhaled by the farmers and this
poses a serious health risk. They are associated with asthma, cancer and other related health infections.
The biological risks that are associated with the project are the pathogenic infections and the parasitic
infestations. Some of the parasites include the leeches that attack individuals who wade unprotected. In most of
the developing countries where both animal and human wastes are used as inputs, cestode, nematodes among
many hazards are possible hazards that the farmers are exposed to. Pathogens: there is a high likelihood of risk
fungal and other pathogenic infections such as the vibrio that are likely in intensively manured ponds. The
release of non-endemic particulars into the water arising from the inadvertent release from the aquaculture
facilities is a serious environmental threat. These particulars could carry infections and parasite alien to the
native with consequential and disastrous results.
Food safety and public health risk is another danger that the farmers are exposed to. The aquaculture
products like many other foods could have a hazard that may end up adversely affecting the consumer’s health.
The major health risks that result from aquaculture products are biologically and are especially for the
organisms that are produced in waste water or water receiving animals and human wastes.
Risk management planning
Risk management is the process by which possible risks that a project is exposed to are identified, assessed,
and prioritized. This process is followed by the application and coordination of the available resources to
monitor, control and minimize the probability of the risk happening or the impact in case the risk happens. The
major object of our project is to ensure that risk threats do not deflect the endeavour from the goals of the
project. The risk is usually inherent with any project and thus the risk managers should assess the risks that face
the given projects and develop plans to address them.
For our project, the risk management plan entails an analysis of the likely risks of our project that have a
low and high impact as well as the mitigation strategies that will help the project to avoid being derailed should
the anticipated problems arise. The risk management plan of the project will require continuous evaluation in
order to avoid the analysis becoming ineffective and thus unable to reflect the potential project risks (Jolly,
2013). For the effective planning on how to manage risk with our project, we can summarize our management
plans into four major strategies:
CONSTRUCTIING A FARM FISH POND 5
a. Risk avoidance
In risk avoidance, we can change plans with the aim of circumventing the problem. This could mean that
we may have to forgo the project in order to avoid the risks that are associated with the project. A good example
is if we want to avoid the risk of an outbreak of waterborne diseases that could result from the water pond
project, we may choose the avoid the carrying out the project of installing the water fish pond and choose on
another project that could as well be of benefit to the society.
b. Control and mitigation of risk
In the mitigating and controlling of the risks, our project we will try to reduce the impact or likelihood
through taking intermediate steps to salvage foreseen situation. The risks discussed above can be controlled and
mitigated to either to completely prevent their happening or control the degree to which they will affect the
surrounding community. A good example could be advocating for corrective measures during the handling of
chemicals to avoid spillage and direct skin contact. This will help control pollution and injuries that could result
from the project. Control and mitigation could, however, turn to be less effective since it could require many
resources which are not available. This is a result of lack of political support and ignorance of many of the
c. Risk acceptance
In risk acceptance, we take the chance of the negative impact and eventually budget the cost. Before we
start working on our project, we will calculate the cost of the risk in case it is incurred. If the benefits derived
from the project are much more important than the cost to be incurred to compensate for the happening of risk,
we will go ahead and consume the risk. A perfect scenario is in the case of addressing food shortage where the
project will be necessary despite the health risks that it poses to the society. People should be ready to seek
medical advice in case there is a disease shortage but ensure that their food security.
d. Transfer risk
In risk transferring, we will outsource the risk to be incurred to the third party which could manage the
outcome. A budget needs to be prepared and the cost of transferring needs to be assessed in the order
determined whether it is economical. For our project, this could be the best plan to manage our project since the
cost is effective.
Risk identification process
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There are a number of ways in which we could use to identify the risk. The major objective or risk
identification is to identify all the possible risks that face our project and not to eliminate. It is an important step
in developing solutions for mitigating the risks. To start with, a comprehensive database of similar projects are
very important. Personal contacts and group dynamics are very significant in risk identification process. Project
team participation is also very crucial since face to face interaction encourages open communication where
every team member is ready to share their risk concerns in open forums. Specialized groups can perform risk
analysis and assessment but they may require the input of the other individuals for the success of the project. In
order to effectively identify all the possible risks of building the fish pond:
Every individual who will take part in the project needs to be involved.
The potential risks need to be identified by all the members of the project team.
No individual should criticize any suggestion
The potential risks that will be identified need to be recorded regardless its significance.
All the potential risks identified should be documented and followed
Qualitative risk analysis
In qualitative risk analysis, we have to implement management techniques that aim at measuring the
likelihood of the above-stated risks happening and the effect hat the risks pose to the community in case they
occur. We can use the following qualitative techniques in determining the probability and impact of risks:
Brainstorming- in this technique, we make efforts to find a conclusion for the risks by collecting ideas
that are spontaneously contributed by the members that will take part in the project.
Interviewing- this will entail preparation of questionnaires that will assess all the possible risk factors
that are exposed to our project and the possible solutions to them. The questions are usually directed to
Delphi technique-This is a communication technique, is developed as a systematic and an interactive
forecasting method that relies on a panel of experts (Morgan, 2012). The best experts give a summary
the others input.
Historical data- information is obtained from the study of past related events
Carrying out a swot analysis and use of rating scales.
Risk response planning
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Risk response is a contingency plan that considers steps to be followed once the risk occurs.in our
project, they go hand in hand with risk acceptance. In case the above-discussed risks occur corrective actions
should be taken to salvage the situation. A good example is in the case of bilharzia outbreak, the affected group
will require medical attention and preventive logistics need to be implemented in order to prevent a similar
occurrence in future.
Our project entailed constructing a farm fish pond for small scale farmers that could be likely situated
in a remote area in the developing countries. The farmers manage multiple of activities in animal and crop
production to maintain their household’s livelihood and spread risk although they are not considered in the
public assistance programs and services which are mostly directed towards and only benefit the bigger and
better-organized farmers. The project could expose the farmers to food safety and public health risk. The
aquaculture products like many other foods could have a hazard that may end up adversely affecting the
We looked at different risks that are exposed to farmers in relation to the fish pond project. We
summarized the risks in three categories physical, biological and chemical. We looked at risk management
planning, risk Identification, qualitative Risk Analysis and risk Response Planning. The risk is usually inherent
with any project and thus the risk managers should assess the risks that face the given projects and develop plans
to address them. Risk management process can be summarised into four major categories in relation to our
We first considered risk avoidance where we realised that we can change plans in order to circumvent
the problem. This could mean that we may have to forgo the implementation of the project in order to avoid the
risks that are associated with the project. Secondly, we looked at risk control and mitigation associated with our
project, this tries to reduce the impact or the likelihood through taking intermediate steps to salvage foreseen
The risks that we identified could be controlled and mitigated to either completely prevent their
happening or control the degree to which they will affect the surrounding community in risk avoiding risk
change plans in order to circumvent the problem. We considered risk acceptance as the third manner of risk
management. In risk acceptance, the chance of the negative impact and eventually budget the cost is considered.
Before we start working on our project, the cost of the risk is calculated in case it is incurred. If the benefits
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derived from the project are much more important than the cost to be incurred to compensate for the happening
of risk, we will go ahead and consume the risk.
Lastly we considered transfer of the risk that could face the project to an outside party. The risk is
outsourced the third party which could manage the outcome. A budget needs to be prepared and the cost of
transferring needs to be assessed in the order determined whether it is economical.in the risk identification
process we concluded that the major objective or risk identification is to identify all the possible risks that face
our project and not to eliminate. It is an important step in developing solutions for mitigating the risks. A
comprehensive database of similar projects are very important. Project team participation is also very crucial
since face to face interaction encourages open communication where every team member is ready to share their
risk concerns in open forums.
In qualitative risk analysis we concluded that discovering the probability of the above-stated risks
happening and the impact that the risks pose to the community in case they occur is mandatory. Brain storming,
interviews and carrying out of SWOT analysis are some of the qualitative techniques in determining the
probability and impact of risks. We concluded our discussion by considering the risk response as a contingency
plan that considers steps to be followed once the risk occurs. In our project, they go hand in hand with risk
acceptance. In case the above-discussed risks occur corrective actions should be taken to salvage the situation.
The project is meant to greatly benefit the small scale farmers however the risks involved with the
implementation of the risk need to well considered. Such projects need full support by the government and other
concerned authorities in order to control and mitigate the risk involved since forgoing of the projects could be
impossible since they are of much necessity to the community. The farmers and community at large needs to be
educated on the possible risks in order to help avoid and thus reduce on the cost incurred in managing the risks.